# McCormick envelopes

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Author Name: John Dombrowski
Steward: Dajun Yue and Fengqi You

McCormick Envelopes are a type of convex relaxation used in bilinear Non Linear Programming problems. Many times these envelopes are used to solve a Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming problem by relaxing the MINLP problem so that it becomes a convex NLP. Solving this convex NLP will provide a lower bound number on the optimal solution of the original MINLP. For more information on solving MINLPs see Spatial Branch and Bound method.

# Overview

In his original paper, McCormick

## Derivation for bilinear term $w=xy$ $x^{L}\le x\le x^{U}$ $y^{L}\le y\le y^{U}$ $a=(x-x^{L})$ $b=(y-y^{L})$ $a*b \ge 0$ $a*b =$ $(x-x^{L})$ $(y-y^{L})=$ $xy -$ $x^{L}y -$ $xy^{L}+$ $x^{L}y^{L} \ge 0$ $w \ge x^{L}y+$ $xy^{L}-$ $x^{L}y^{L}$ $a=(x^{U}-x)$ $b=(y^{U}-y)$ $w \ge x^{U}y+$ $xy^{U}-$ $x^{U}y^{U}$ $a=(x^{U}-x)$ $b=(y-y^{L})$ $w \le x^{U}y+$ $xy^{L}-$ $x^{U}y^{L}$ $a=(x-x^{L})$ $b=(y^{U}-y)$ $w \le xy^{U}+$ $x^{L}y-$ $x^{L}y^{U}$